Tuesday, 16 January, 2007



B.S. Kurlovich
International North Express Co., Fin-52420, Pellosniemi, Finland

Simo Hovinen

Boreal Plant Breeding, Fin-31600, Jokioinen, Finland


The purpose of this research was to study opportunities for breeding and cultivation of narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) in Finland. The study was conducted with determinate cultivars and lines of nar­row-leafed lupin. Our research has shown that early forms of L. angustifolius are suitable for breeding and cultivation on sandy soils in the south of Finland. An important condition for successful growth of lupins is inoculation with Rhizobia, especially in regions where lupins are being cultivated for the first time.

Lupinus angustifolius L., determinate branching, heredity, eco-geographical conditions, GxE interaction.

Investigators and farmers in Finland have not shown an interest in growing annual lupin species given the location of the country, close to the Arctic Circle and the short plant growing season. Valle (1938, 1941), Pitkänen (1939), and Aniszewski (1993) showed that the cultivation of narrow-leafed lupin (L. angustifolius) and even yellow lupin (L. luteus L.) was possible in Finland in good seasons, on sandy soils. More opportunities for the cultivation of this crop have arisen from the breeding of earlier, determinate branching cultivars. The results of our studies on narrow-leafed lupin in Finland are presented in this paper.


The objective of this study was to investigate determinate branched cultivars and lines of narrow-leafed lupin: Ladny from Russia, Mut-1 from Poland, Lanedeks-1 and Pershatsvet from Belarus and early lines and hybrids created from them by as. Determi­nate cultivars were crossed with the indeterminate: Nemchinovsky 846 and Timir-1 from Russia, Mirela from Poland and Illyarie from Australia.
Before sowing all seed samples were checked for purity and were made into pure lines. All observations were made using the same methods (Kurlovich et al., 1995). Parental accessions and hybrids were tested at all sites at 30 plants m2. The focus of the investigation was the branching pattern, and the stability of the determinate growth habit at the different locations.
Only uniform, early lines were selected for the final stage of the research in Finland. They were from the F4-12. Four replicates were used for testing under Finnish conditions.
Over the different years the sowing date was from April 20 to May 15 and harvest dates ranged from August 20 to September 15.

All initial materials before breeding in Finland (cultivars and hybrids) were assessed from 1986 to 1998 on plots of 1-2 m2 in contrasting environments. In Russia, plants were spring sown near St. Petersburg on the experimental fields of the Pushkin Laboratories of VlR (Leningrad Province, 58 oN. on a sodic-podzolic soil; in the Ukraine in spring near Kiev (Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Arable Farming, about 50 ON in the non-black-soil zone, and in the autumn in the humid subtropics of Abkhazia (Gulripsh Settlement, former Sukhumi Experimental Station of VIR, at about 42 oN. Details of this work are given in Kurlowicz (1992); Kurlovich et al. (1995,2002) and Kurlovich and Ivanova (2000).

Parental lines and the most productive, early, stable hybrids were tested in spring sowings from 1995-2001 in Finland, near Pellosniemi (Mikkeli Province, 61 oN) on a sandy soil. Seed sown at Pellosniemi was inoculated with commercial strain 363A of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) produced by the All-­Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology. Seven new strains of nodule bacteria developed by the All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology were tested in glass house experiments on two lupin varieties (Nemchinovsky 846 from Russia, and Yandee from Australia).


As a result of the hybridization stable, determinate lines of narrow-leafed lupin were selected. The total number of lines was 65 in the first stage of testing in Finland (1995-1997). Subse­quently the number of lines was reduced to 10 by rejection, death from plant diseases or failure to mature. The results of the testing in Finland (near Pellosniemi, about 61 oN) on a Sandy soil following seed inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus are shown the positive results. The best selected lines were superior to the parents in both early maturity and productivity. Maturity of spring sown seed (May) of the best lines on sandy soils was the end of August to the beginning of September, before the autumn drop in temperature.

An important condition for successfully growing narrow-leafed lupin in Finland is inoculation with nodule bacteria, especially in regions where lupins are being cultivated for the first time.
In control plots (uninoculated) plants of all lines had no nodules. Frequently these plants were weaker and stunted. Plantings, which were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus, differed considerably from the control plants. The plants bad a greater number of smooth nodules between 2 and 7 mm in diameter and located evenly over their whole root system. The number of nodules present differed from plant to plant but all treated plants bore numerous nodules. The results show that inoculating plants with Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus in all cases lead to increased seed yield.
Seven new strains of nodule bacteria developed at the Institute of Agricultural Microbiology were tested in an additional greenhouse experiment. The strains were tested on two lupin varieties. The highest efficiency of symbiotic nitrogen fixation for the regionally adapted Russian cv. Nemchinovsky 846 was shown by the new strains 1604, 1630 and 1607 strains
of Bradyrhizobium lupini. With cv. Yandee, from Australia, the highest efficiency of nitrogen fixation was shown by strains 1604 and 1630. Their use gave a 1.5 to 2.0 fold increase in accumulation of total plant dry matter.
This work showed there were, significant differences in the response of the various lupin lines to inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus. Most of the accessions were highly responsive to inoculation with commercial strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus and these increased plant DM yield. The reduced effect of Bradyrhizobium sp. Lupinus on same of the accessions can be explained by a mismatch between the bacterial strain used and the plant genotype. Thus, it is important to create highly complementary symbiotic rela­tionships between the lupin plant and the bacteria to increase plant response to inoculation. This could be achieved by searching for new strains of nodule bacteria, which match specific lupin varieties, and by identifying plant genotypes, which are responsive to inoculation. Detailed information on this can be found in Kurlovich et al. (2000).

Boreal Plant Breeding, in Jokioinen, has tested cv. Pershatsvet, from Belarus for some years. The original aim was to grow 2 ha to obtain protein rich feed for pigs. The Agricultural Research Center located near Boreal Plant Breeding was inter­ested in obtaining a protein source for organic pig production. These investigations are ongoing….
Boreal Plant Breeding research established that cv. Pershatsvet did not grow well in the clay soils like those in Jokioinen.
Secondly, because the soils did not contain Rhizobial strains, which the lupins needed, seed must be inoculated with Rhizobium before sowing. The year 2001 was the first time lupins were grown on a lighter soil.

Weeds have been a problem in our lupin experiments. We cannot use a herbicide for weed control to grow organic lupins. Because cv. Pershatsvet is short, competitive weeds can cover the lupins and reduce seed yield.
Boreal Plant Breeding research has conformed that cv. Pershatsvet must be sown early in Finland because it is late maturing and growth can be limited in cool growing seasons.
Secondly, it must be grow on sandy soils. Animals like hare and roe deer eagerly eat the lupins. Our experiments have regularly been eaten and trials have been destroyed every year. In large areas, seed yield has varied from 1 to 2.5 Mg ha-1. The cv. Pershatsvet contains 0.03 % alkaloids and is thus a sweet lupin.
The results of our studies on determinate branching narrow-­leafed lupin -lines and cultivates suggest that the phenotypic expression of determinate branching is influenced by the geno­type, the environment and their interaction. Thus the contribution of these factors may differ in the different accessions. The most stable determinate branching was in the Ladny and Pershatsvet. The effect of the environment on determinate branching in these accessions was minimal. These accessions are being widely used for breeding in Belarus, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine as a source of early-maturity, thermal and photoperiod stability.
Cv. Ladny and Pershatsvet have also potential for the growing conditions in Scandinavia. Their use in selection has allowed the creation of earlier genotypes that ripen even under conditions experienced in Finland. These genotypes are a potential valuable source for further selection In Finland.

These studies again have confirmed that in producing new cultivars of agricultural plants there is a need to select for the growing conditions of the crop. To produce lupin cultivars with broad ecological plasticity, use was made of initial genetic material, which showed stability under testing in contrasting environments. Eco-geographical investigations make it possible to create valuable material through hybridization of forms with different characters. This allows transgressive forms to be obtained in the character is expressed at a higher level than in the parental limes.

This work has shown, that early flowering, determinate branching forms of L. angustifolius are suitable for growing on the sandy soils in the south of Finland and possibly in other Scandinavian countries.

Because of this we believe it is expedient to start systematic breeding of narrow-leafed lupin in Finland. The cvs. Ladny, Pershatsvet and material created from them have potential for breeding for sub-Arctic conditions. For successful growing it is important to inoculate the seed with Rhizobium, especial1y in regions where lupin are being cultivated for the first time.

We consider, that narrow-leafed lupin have the highest potential in Nordic countries and in Finland especially in future as a valuable cultivated plants!


Aniszewski, T. 1993. Lupine: a potential crop in Finland. Studies on the ecology, productivity and quality of Lupinus ssp. PbD thesis summary, Joensuuu, 50p.

Kurlovich, B.S., and O. Ivanova. 2000. Genetic and environmental influences on branching in narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.). The International Academy Vestnik:, (April 2000), St-Petersburg,5:4-13.

Kulovich, B.S., S.I. Rep'ev, L.G. Shchelko, V.I. Budanova, MY. Petrova, T.Y. Buravtseva,AK Stankevich, L.T. Kartuzova, T.G. Alexandrova, T.E. Teplyakova, andL.K Malysh. 1995. Theoreti­cal basis of plant breeding. Vol 111. The gene bank and breeding of grain legumes (lupine, vetch, soya and bean), St Petersburg, VIR, 438p.

Kurlovich, B.S., L.T. Kartuzova, B.M. Cheremisov, T.A. Emeljanenko, L.A. Tikhonovich, A.P. Kozemyakov, and S.A. Tche1kova. 2000. Evaluation of the biological nitrogen-fixing ability of lupin (Lupinus L.). Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter, Rome, Italy, 123: 68-77.

Kurłowicz, B.S. 1992. Dziedziczenie się cechy determinującei spocób rozgałęziania się u łubinu wąskolistnego (Lupinus angustifolius L.). Mater. konf. "Genetika 2000". Krakow, 1992. S.106, (on Polish).

Pitkänen, E. 1939.Lupiinien viljelystä. Helsigin yliopisto. Tutkielma.

Vale, O. 1938. Tammistossa suoritetuista ymppäyskokeista. Lupiinikokeet Siemenjulkaisu. Tammisto.

Vale, O. 1941. Sininen ja keltainen rehulupiini. Karjatalous, 4:1-7.

This article is published in full with figures and tables in:
Proceedings of 10 International Lupin Conference
Wild and Cultivated Lupuns From the Tropics to the Poles”, Laugarvarth, Iceland, 19-24 June 2002, p.56-58.

Links to more about Lupinus angustifolius L. http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Lupinus+angustifoliushttp://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?22805http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=LUAN4http://www.ildis.org/LegumeWeb/6.00/taxa/5821.shtml

1 comment:

Boris Malinowcky said...

The urgency of the problem becomes more obvious in connection with global warming of a climate.
I am confident, that Finland becomes an optimum place for cultivation of many species of lupin in the near future. It is wonderful that scientists of Finland are working effectively!
It is necessary also support of Government of the Country for such important and perspective scientific developments!

Boris Malinowcky
Professor and academician of Russian Academy of Agricultural Science